The various types of carpets available can be classified as under:
- On the basis of fiber
- On the basis of Designs and Style
- On the basis of weaving techniques
- On the basis of fiber
Fibre - WOOL
- Clean and natural flooring.
- Carpets of wool are resistant to wear & tear.
- Wool is very resilient and elastic. Ectified after compression, restores the form, well cleaned. It is a good sound and heat insulator. For decades look like new.
- Keeps you warm in the poorly heated rooms, and also prevents the accumulation of static electricity. Wool can absorb moisture�from the air up to 40% of its weight and stay dry to the touch.
- One of the advantages of woolen carpets wool fiber reflects light in different directions, so they do not shine, are extremely soft, very comfortable.
- The quality of wool depends on the animal's age, sex, breed, diet, habitat areas (better quality wool sheared from sheep that graze in the mountains, in the cooler areas where they grow their very thick and fluffy coat. The higher the quality of wool, the rug looks beautiful.�Wool rugs enrich your home decor and if you see a woolen carpets in the office, then you are in a rich company.
- The soft tissue of the filaments, extracted from cocoons (silkworm), an insect that feeds on leaves of mulberry. The cocoon created by them during the transformation into a pupa and then into a butterfly.Before the final maturation of dried cocoons and larvae are killed.
- The length of silk thread (fiber) is up to 800 - 1000 m, but in the production of silk yarn for the carpet is only one-third the length of hair, because this is the third different extraordinary brilliance and homogeneity.the performance of this phase is very low: of the seven kilograms of cocoons obtained no more than one kilogram of silk thread - this is one of the reasons for the high cost of carpets made from silk.
- The thread has a triangular cross section and, like a prism reflecting light that is beautiful and shiny transfusions.
- Silk, in spite of its delicate and fragile appearance, it is very sturdy and reliable material. Any product made of pure silk is resistant to various physical effects. Unlike other materials, silk carpets are resistant to changes in size (shrinkage), icreasing, and the slightest change in shape, resistance to surface abrasion and fracture.
- Silk carpets are largely opposed to wool. They are elegant, thin and light, have a distinctive high-gloss shine. Silk yarn with its extraordinary subtlety is very strong, which allows to achieve the highest density of the weave - up to 2 million knots per square meter (a few times more than the finest woolen carpets).
- In addition, silk carpets are an incredible natural property of displaying different colors that can be seen by looking at the carpet from different angles. Silk carpet surface, depending on the angle of view, time of day, natural or artificial lighting takes on new nuances and therefore always looks a little different.
- Of particular importance are the hygienic properties of silk carpets - non-flammability, non-inflammability, no release of harmful volatile substances (as in some synthetic materials), allergic effects, electrified. Thus, silk carpets are absolutely safe and harmless.
- Currently, the largest producer of silk is China (about 50% of the total world production). India produces about 15% of the world silk, followed by Uzbekistan (3%) and Brazil (2,5%). Significant manufacturers are also in Iran, Thailand and Vietnam.
Fibre - JUTE
- The basis for the manufacture of jute fabric jute yarn is obtained from the stems of adult plants - jute.
- There are about 100 species of jute crops, they grow in the tropics of Asia, Africa, America and Australia. Most jute crop sown area in India.
- Fiber plants are widely used in the textile industry in the production of not only the carpet but for furniture and fabrics, fabrics for curtains, wallpaper and other textile products.
- The exceptional environmental friendliness, ease of fabrication, low cost of production, antistatic jute fibers, the possibility of recycling without harm to the environment and many other features make the jute and its products useful and helpful to people.
- Carpets made of jute are ecologically clean, natural product. The choice of true connoisseurs of all natural.
Fibre - COTTON
- Cotton - the fiber of vegetable origin , obtained from cotton bolls - the genus Gossypium. - Cotton holds its shape well and does not stretch, making the role of material and purchased carpet backing. - Bundles of cotton knit little. The exceptions are some of the tribal rugs, where cotton is used to emphasize the contrast in the image fine details. - Cotton is cheaper than wool and silk. Sometimes cotton is used as part of the pile carpet style "Shaggy". - By the properties of cotton can also include hygiene, resistance to washing, cotton "breathes", easily absorbs and releases moisture, dries quickly. - Cotton is comfortable and pleasant to use, soft and abrasion resistant, easy to clean. Cotton is a well-painted and practically does not burn.
Fibre - VISCOSE
- Viscose - artificial, not synthetic fiber made from natural materials - wood pulp.
- Viscose rayon is easily colored dyes for natural fibers (cotton, linen), hygroscopic (absorbs moisture), which leads to high hygienic quality fabrics from it, and by the availability of raw materials and reagents used in the manufacture, relatively inexpensive.
- Pile Viscose - ideally mimics natural silk. In this regard, domestic viscose is often called artificial silk.
- Carpets made of viscose acquire polish and ease, and the fine structure of the rug gives the room airiness.
- Viscose carpet for a long time preserves the texture and color, it does not pile trampled and worn on the intense circulation.
- Often in the production of viscose carpet it is used in combination with wool. When you add a viscose yarn in the pattern of the carpet can achieve the effect of overflows of colors of individual parts of the picture.
Fibre - ACRYLIC
- Acrylic fiber - a high quality synthetic material, obtained by chemical means.
- Acrylic on sight and touch is very similar to wool, and has many of its advantages. A carpet of high quality acrylic is difficult to distinguish from wool, even a professional cannot determine the difference.
- Carpets made of acrylic are resistant to dirt, not afraid of moisture and mildew, easy to clean, weigh less, and cost less.
- Acrylic stains better than other materials, so the carpets are made from acrylic yarn are brighter, more colorful, takes long time to fade.
- Acrylic carpets - a good solution for people with allergies, because does not cause allergies, unlike cheap synthetic or wool. They accumulate less dust.
- All synthetic carpet fibers do not support the vital functions of insects and microorganisms, ie, in the carpet of the acrylic will never be acquired moles.
Fibre - PLOYESTER
- Polyester - a synthetic fiber, obtained by chemical means.
- Polyester in appearance feel like wool. It shares many characteristics of wool.
- It resists dirt, takes long time to wear, high resistance to abrasion, does not burn, it does not form mold, and it is easy to clean. With its easy to remove low-fat spots, as in the case of nylon and most synthetic materials, but the grease stains can be permanent if not removed immediately.
Carpets made of FURS, SKINS
- Fancy and stylish rugs from the skins can me made
- A distinctive feature of leather carpets and / or fur is a natural raw materials and original design. Carpets are made from high quality raw materials. The materials are subject to special treatment, then part of the skins sewn together by special machines in the carpets. If the carpet is present a complex picture, his embroidered by hand or using special tools.
- The luxurious yet discreet carpet of skins adorn themselves in the business office and living room There are many solutions and, in any of them so the carpet will play perfectly functional and aesthetic role.
- Decorative items made of natural fur is very relevant in the interior, making it a luxury, they emphasize the social status of the owner of the house. This is known by the ancient Egyptians. Of the first expeditions to northern Ethiopia, they brought the skins of lions and leopards to decorate the homes of the Pharaohs. And over the past millennium fur never left the interior decoration of houses of the rich, varied only furniture styles, textures and dressing of fur, and later its color.
- Anyway, fur, skins or leather - now fit into almost any decor - from classical to country and urban luxury. They are always relevant, because it embodies the idea of luxury, warmth, comfort and well-being. Therefore, the skins and furs - beyond fashion - they are forever.
On the basis of Design and Style
Carpet can be grouped into three primary constructions: LOOP PILE, CUT PILE, and CUT and LOOP PILE. Each of these construction types may be used. Although cut piles represent the largest market share for residential carpet. Loop pile carpets, such as Berber, have been increasing in popularity over the past 10 years.
- Loop Pile Carpet
All carpet actually begins as a loop pile and the loops are cut during manufacturing to provide the cut pile appearance. As the name implies, cut and loops are a combination of cut loops and uncut loops to provide texture or patterns. Most cut and loops are primarily cut piles with some loops left uncut for patterns, although a few styles utilize the opposite effect.
- Cut Pile Carpet
Cut pile constructions can be used in both residential and commercial carpet installations. However, cut piles are used far more widely in residential applications and comprise the largest share of the residential market. There are numerous subcategories of cut pile carpet. Each category provides a different appearance or finished look.
The following categories of cut pile can be found when shopping for residential carpet.
- Saxony: This is a cut pile carpet in which two or more plies of yarn have been twisted and heat-set so that the tip of each carpet tuft is distinguishable on the pile surface. Saxonies have the tendency to show footprints and vacuum cleaner sweeper marks. This is based in light reflection of the fiber when pile direction is changed. When brushed in one direction, the pile may assume a darker hue, while adjacent yarns brushed in the opposite direction may present a lighter hue. When viewed in the opposite direction, color hues of darker areas will appear lighter. This is not a defect of any kind, but merely a characteristic of this carpet construction.
- Plush: Sometimes called velvet because of the velvet or velour appearance obtained by using staple yarn and high-density construction. Plushes provide a more formal appearance than other cut pile constructions. They are subject to revealing vacuum cleaner sweeper marks and footprints due to light reflection similar to a saxony. Delustred (non-shiny) yarns may reduce this shade variation. Plushes tend to be more subject to pile reversal or water marking. Water marking is the result of permanent pile reversal in localized areas. Watermarking provides the appearance of a wet surface in darker shaded areas. The shape of these areas may appear irregular, which reinforces the appearance of a wet area. This is considered a normal occurrence for Plushes and is not considered a manufacturing defect. The occurrence of water marking may be a result of local conditions or other unknown causes.
- Textured: Textured cut piles also may be called �trackless�, �foot-print free�, �stuffer-box�. These names describe the tendency of this construction to show fewer footprints and sweeper marks than other cut pile constructions. It should be noted that no cut pile can be classified as being completely free of shading. These constructions are obtained by stuffing yarn into a steam box (stuffer box) and providing a kinked or curled yarn. The fiber is exposed to live steam to set yarn memory in this curled position. This curling of the fiber reduces light reflectance, thus reducing the appearance of footprints. Generally, when viewing a texture from the top, kinked yarns may provide a two-tone effect as a result of shade variations from reflected light.
- Frieze Carpet: A true frieze carpet is similar to a texture in that footprints and vacuum cleaner marks are disguised. The textured appearance is acquired by placeing a high twist level on the plied yarns. This high twist level causes the tuft to twist back upon itself providing a kinked appearance. In general terms, higher twist levels provide enhanced performance characteristics, when compared to lower twist products with the same construction attributes. True frieze carpet styles tend to be more costly because of higher costs of production and they may not provide the same perceived value as lower twist, textured products.
While other cut pile categories exist, these constitute the most popular styles of residential carpet. These include shag carpet � a low density, high pile height product. This construction tends to increase and decrease in popularity depending upon design trends.
On the basis of technique
By way of manufacturing carpets rugs are divided into Machine made and Hand made.
- Machine made - These rugs are made in special facilities, and large series of standard sizes. Their features are low cost, low density, low pile height and often not a complex design.
- Determining the pricing factors for the machine-made carpets depend upon following characteristics:
- Density (it is between 150 and 1000 per meter)
- height of the pile (from 6 mm to 50 mm)
- The material for the pile yarn (wool, acrylic, viscose, cotton, etc.)
- The thickness of the pile thread
- Colors of threads
Handmade rugs in turn, are divided into three main types :
1. HandTufted Rugs -Tufted carpets are made using a "pistol" - hand tool that is used for "sticking" in the bundles of threads stretched on canvas on a frame, then the back of the carpet is attached with another base jali. This base prevents slipping and scratching the floor, as well as increases warmth and insulation of the rug. This technology, in the last 10 years has been very widely used.In a loop pile or cut to cut we get a carpet with a split hair . If you do not cut, it turns loop (hinge) carpet. with split hair less durable than loop. But look more elegant. In a carpet there can be a loop and cut pile. A simple single level loop carpet is having all loops having same height and not cut. If you make the loops of different heights, you get a multi-level loop carpet.
2. HandWoven Rugs -A flat textile products, made up of two intersecting systems of threads: warp (longitudinal) and weft threads (transverse).Hand-woven carpets are made by the loom. In this case, the pile foundation and weave together, resulting in an extremely dense carpet.The figure is repeated on both sides of the carpet, manufacturing process is very laborious
3. Nodular Rugs -These Carpets are the most labor-intensive to produce, but at the same time highest quality and stunningly are beautiful.The carpet is woven, yarn is implemented in its fabric base by weaving knots.The process of weaving is carried on the frame , which is called the tying machine.In the frame tightly attached to one another, vertically stretch the warp threads of wool, silk or cotton.